A hypothesis that has been tested extensively without being rejected and has won widespread acceptance is a: A theory that has won virtually universal acceptance is a: A simplified representation of a particular problem is a: A) model. The study of how people choose among the alternatives available to them is the: According to the textbook, economics is a: A) social science that deals with making choices among alternatives. G Gray hair, baldness, and wrinkles in relation to myocardial infarction: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Moreover, random misclassification would have led to an underestimate of the magnitude of association between baldness pattern and CHD. These differences may be a result of our larger sample size and the specificity of our measure of baldness (frontal vs vertex). BDKaplan JEBremner Serum androgens: associations with prostate cancer risk and hair patterning. Male Baldness and Heart Disease. D) ceteris paribus, which means all other things remain unchanged. Of the 22,071 randomized subjects in the PHS, 20,294 were alive at the 11-year follow-up. A free good is one that can be acquired without sacrifice. Paulo A. Lotufo, MD, is recipient of fellowship 97-02424-8 from the Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa de Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. PJMcGill C) being bald actually makes heart disease less likely. OT Male pattern baldness: classification and incidence. A more recent observation in support of this hypothesis was made by a man living on a remote island who found, upon his return to the mainland, that the weight of beard shaved every 24 hours was heavier immediately prior to and during periods of sexual activity (2). JMCohen Guzick The sacrifice of an alternative is called: A) attention paid to the opportunity costs involved in any choice. To examine the association between male pattern baldness and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. High levels of androgens may directly contribute to both atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and may adversely influence risk factors such as hypertension and high cholesterol. After the researchers made adjustments for age and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, they concluded that male pattern baldness can put men at a 5.6 times higher risk of developing heart disease. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: A) there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. Design, Setting, and Participants As cardiac output increased during exercise, indexed power loss increased in an exponential fashion (y=0.9671x3.0263, p<0.0001). The strength of the association was not materially altered in multivariate analyses after controlling for multiple potential confounders. FWhite Cotton We also thank Anna Klevak, PhD, for her expert assistance. Trevisan We detected no effect modification when we performed analyses stratified by age (older and younger than 55 years at baseline). MRBoyer G Atherogenic effects of anabolic steroids on serum lipid levels: a literature review. The reasoning goes like this: men have much more testosterone than women, and they develop heart disease about 10 years before their female counterparts. KRuff “Endothelial function” refers to a multitude of physiological functions of the vascular endothelium that are achieved via secretion of diverse bioactive substances. A variable that induces a change in another variable is a(n): A basic assumption used in many economic models is: A) as price goes up, the amount purchased will go up too. Persson As life expectancies increase, signs of … To examine the association between male pattern baldness and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: A) there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. D) the opportunity cost of that choice is the highest-valued other choice that could have been made. et al. PV Testosterone increases human platelet thromboxane A2 receptor density and aggregation responses. In a case-control study, vertex baldness was associated with myocardial infarction (MI) among men younger than 55 years but frontal baldness was not.7 The Copenhagen City Heart Study8 showed a significant association between frontal baldness and MI independent of age, while the observed association with vertex baldness was of borderline significance. Vertex baldness was more strongly associated with CHD risk among men with hypertension (multivariate RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.44) or high cholesterol levels (multivariate RR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.09-7.12). RGEvans Cardiovascular risk factors activate a number o… Our prevalence ratio, considering whether diabetes is a risk factor for coronary heart disease is 12.04 / 3.9 = 3.1. Effect modification by cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by examining the relationship of hair-loss pattern and CHD risk within subgroups stratified by the presence or absence of the specific risk factor. C) an increase in investment spending tends to reduce unemployment. Ford Karter Hair pattern classification and frequency among participants in the Physicians' Health Study. JP Testosterone exacerbates hypertension and reduces pressure-natriuresis in male spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Copenhagen Heart Study8 observed 5837 men over 12 years and assessed 2 types of baldness, frontoparietal and crown-top, both of which were associated with CHD. EOSutton-Tyrrell Sheikh JAppleyard The opportunity cost of going to a movie is: D) the next best use of the time and the money spent. deals with: D) the kinds and quantities of goods and services produced. Participants with severe vertex baldness reported a higher prevalence of diabetes than men classified in other hair-pattern categories. 7. The respondents answered the question, "Which of the following most closely approximates your hair pattern at age 45?" Microeconomics deals with: A) the working of the entire economy or large sectors of it. The economic way of thinking pays special attention to costs, assumes individuals seek to maximize some objective, and focuses on choices at the margin. Vertex pattern baldness appears to be a marker for increased risk of CHD events, especially among men with hypertension or high cholesterol levels. Although water is very abundant in most places, it is scarce because: B) almost all goods have alternative uses. An attempt should always be made to maximize opportunity cost. DBurton We did not have data about hair pattern in those participants who died before the 11-year follow-up (n = 1777), of whom approximately one third died from cardiovascular disease.11 The data about hair pattern at age 45 years were obtained on the 11-year questionnaire, at which time the physicians were aged 51 to 95 years. After controlling for age and treatment assignment, MPB was associated with a modest increase in risk of CHD events (Table 2). SK © 2020 American Medical Association. These 5 sketches were based on the Hamilton scale for baldness, as modified by Norwood.13 They represent no hair loss, frontal baldness only, or frontal baldness with mild, moderate, or severe vertex baldness. BW The Kockum Study: twenty-two year follow-up–coronary heart disease in a population in the south of Sweden. Medical researchers followed 1435 middle-aged men for a period of 5 years, measuring the amount of Baldness present Home » Questions » Computer Science » Database Management System » Database Management System - Others » Baldness and heart disease. They also asked a control group (not suffering from heart disease) of 772 males to do the same baldness assessment. JrAufdemorte JFZhang NAHowell In a systematic review of observational studies of anabolic steroid use, androgen administration was associated with lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and higher total-HDL cholesterol ratios.28 Induction of experimental hypogonadism with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (Nal-Glu) for 6 weeks increased HDL levels by 26% and total cholesterol levels by 12% among healthy young men. Vital status was known for more than 99% of participants. While noting that more research needs to be done, one hypothesis that Dr. Margaret offers is that higher testosterone levels might be triggering both the hair loss and the heart disease. ESugimoto WLesko Significant between-hospital variation (up to ninefold) in adjusted cost was observed across operations. Table 1 shows the distribution of baseline risk factors across hair-pattern categories. EGuzick RN Polycystic ovaries are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait: analysis of 29 polycystic ovary syndrome and 10 control families. CH Baseline characteristics of participants in the Physicians' Health Study: a randomized trial of aspirin and beta-carotene in U.S. physicians. The fallacy of false cause is committed when a person mistakenly assumes that one event causes another because the first event precedes the second. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. Men with rapid hair loss (n = 34) during the 5-year interval had a relative risk of CHD of 2.4 (95% CI, 1.3-4.4) when compared with those who had no or slight progression of baldness (n = 224). During 11 years of follow-up, we documented 1446 CHD events in this cohort. Retrospective cohort study among 22,071 US male physicians aged 40 to 84 years enrolled in the Physicians' Health Study. VA Balding hair follicle dermal papilla cells contain higher levels of androgen receptors than those from non-balding scalps. When we are forced to make choices we are facing the concept of: A) a choice must be made among two or more alternatives. Correct Answer(s): A 2. D) there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. et al. Demark-Wahnefried Coronary heart disease events defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris, and/or coronary revascularization. JEGrobbee Response options included no hair loss, frontal baldness only, or frontal baldness with mild, moderate, or severe vertex baldness. Pattern hair loss is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp. The value of the next-best choice not chosen is called opportunity cost. PLange Get free access to newly published articles. HC The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: BJohansson BBBosco B) being bald actually makes heart disease less likely. DClerici Whenever a choice is made: A) the value of all the other choices that could have been made is called opportunity cost. Lesko RBGerstman The problem of determining for whom to produce exists because: B) a decision that one person or group will receive a good or service usually means that another person or group will not. 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