Ecological genetics and the restoration of plant communities: mix or match? Potential positional bias was minimized by rotating the position of the plants on the greenhouse bench within each replicate once per day. and Megachilidae. As such, milkweed is critical for the survival of monarchs. They are somewhat thick with a prominent midrib beneath. The monarch butterfly—Danaus plexippus, if you prefer its scientific name—is in a very vulnerable place right now. The upper surface is light to dark green while the lower surface is lighter, almost white at times. Five bee families and 17 genera were represented amongst the 2,436 total bees sampled from blooms of wild-type milkweeds and their cultivars in the replicated gardens. Discover (and save!) Description: Also known as Narrowleaf milkweed, this perennial has narrow, whorled leaves with clusters of greenish-white flowers, often tinged with purple and blooms June to September. The authors declare there are no competing interests. Evaluating plants for pollinator-friendly gardens, Butterfly learning and the diversification of plant leaf shape, Vein-cutting behavior: insect counterploy to the latex defense of plants, Host specificity of Lepidoptera in tropical and temperate forests, More than meets the eye? Tussock moth caterpillars. Monarch butterflies use this defense and birds leave them and the caterpillars alone. For common milkweed, just toss the seed around where you want them to grow. Accordingly, this is a wonderful horticultural plant for landscaping to attract butterflies (particularly monarchs), whose numbers are declining and migratory routes changing due to lack of appropriate habitat. As soon as I learned that milkweed is not only edible, it’s actually better than asparagus…well that was a game changer for me. The relatively short stature of all cultivars of A. tuberosa (Table S2) compared to A. incarnata may account, in part, for why we found fewer eggs and larvae on the former species in both years despite them both being suitable as larval food (Erickson, 1973). It is frequently found in fence rows, on roadsides, in fields, and in prairies and pastures. Overwintering Milkweed Plants. Habitat at Home: Growing Milkweed Monarch on common milkweed. Native plant cultivars are not without controversy, however, even for managed landscapes and gardens. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, From nursery to nature: evaluating native herbaceous flowering plants versus native cultivars for pollinator habitat restoration, High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of cardenolides in, https://rivercitygrandrapids.wildones.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/21/2018/03/Nativars-Statement.pdf, State of the science and challenges of breeding landscape plants with ecological function, Bumble Bees of North America: an identification guide, Ecology and evolution of reproduction in milkweeds, Movement and egg laying in monarchs: to move or not to move, that is the equation. All of the milkweeds bloomed in June and July. A spatial framework for targeting urban planning for pollinators and people with local stakeholders: a route to healthy, blossoming communities? Within the A. tuberosa group ‘Gay Butterflies’ and ‘Hello Yellow’ had significantly higher latex expression than the wild type. Bees were collected by knocking them into plastic containers containing 70% EtOH, or sometimes caught with aerial nets held over an umbel so that bees would fly up into the net, or by gently sweeping the blooms without damaging the plant. Carl Linnaeus, Swedish botanist (1707-1778), named the genus after Asclepius, the Greek god of healing because of the many folk-medicinal uses for this plant. Indeed, a survey of nurseries in the Mid-Atlantic region, probably representative of the industry overall, found that only 23% of native plant taxa being marketed are true or “wild type”, the rest being available only as cultivated forms (Coombs & Gilchrist, 2017). Bee assemblages of A. incarnata were dominated by Apidae (Bombus, Xylocopa spp., and Apis mellifera), whereas A. tuberosa attracted relatively more Halictidae (especially Lasioglossum spp.) Its sap, leaves and flowers also provide food. Common use cases All Midwest milkweeds Milkweed plants are neonicotinoid and pesticide free! The specific epithet, syriaca, means ‘of Syria’ in reference to Linnaeus's mistaken belief it was from Syria. They can destroy 80 to 90 percent of a colony's seed crop. What the birds do not know is that northern monarchs feeding on common milkweed accumulate relatively little of the toxic compounds and probably would be edible. Toxicity of Common Milkweed . The partitioning of pollinators among three species of, Application of genetic diversity–ecosystem function research to ecological restoration, Modeling the status, trends, and impacts of wild bee abundance in the United States, Biodiversity in the city: fundamental questions for understanding the ecology of urban green spaces for biodiversity conservation. All native cultivars used in our study had leaves seemingly similar to their parental species, but if plant breeders were to select for cultivars having modified leaf shape, color, or variegation, such changes could potentially affect monarchs’ visual perception of them as hosts. The common milkweed, Asclepias syriacqa, is one of the best known wild plants in North America. Milkweed seeds (and most wildflower seeds), shouldn’t be planted any deeper than they are long. Trichome densities and latex exudation were compared among milkweeds by methods of Agrawal & Fishbein (2006). Suitability of native milkweed (Asclepias) species versus cultivars for supporting monarch butterflies and bees in urban gardens. News. How to Kill Milkweeds. Cultivar mean differs significantly from mean for wild type (Dunnett’s test, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, Transactions of the Academy Sciences of St. Louis, Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, PeerJ (Life, Biological, Environmental and Health Sciences), PeerJ - General bio (stats, legal, policy, edu), Rendón-Salinas, Fajardo-Arroyo & Tavera-Alonso, 2015, ASLA survey: demand high for residential landscapes with sustainability and active living elements. A conservation practitioner’s guide. Bee genus diversity was similar within the A. incarnata group ( F3,15 = 1.74, P = 0.2, Table 3). Funding was provided by USDA-NIFA-SCRI grant 2016-51181-235399 administered through IR4 Grant 2015-34383-23710, the Horticultural Research Institute, BASF Living Acres Program, University of Kentucky Nursery Research Endowment Fund, and USDA-NIFA Hatch Project no. Overwintering Milkweed Plants. It is a widespread and somewhat weedy species known from most of the eastern United States and the eastern most prairie states as well as southern Canada from New Brunswick to Saskatchewan. Nursery Management, Resource partitioning among some social insects: bumblebees. (A–D) Asclepias incarnata: (A) Wild Type, (B) ’Cinderella’, (C) ’Ice Ballet’, (D) ’Soulmate’. They are green initially, turning brown as they mature. Some cultivar traits, e.g., leaf variegation or leaves altered from green to red or purple, seem to change host suitability for some insects, whereas selection for other traits seems to make little difference insofar as host use by particular herbivores or biodiversity of folivorous insects supported by those plants (Tencazar & Krischik, 2007; Baisden et al., 2018; Poythress & Affolter, 2018). Nodding milkweed (Asclepias glaucescens) 13 Habitat: Along stream beds and dry rocky slopes in open pine, juniper, or oak woodland canyons in the Chisos, Davis, and Guadalupe Mountains in the Trans Pecos Ecoregion. All observations took place between 1000 to 1400 h, on clear warm days. Country Naturals. During droughts, keep the flowers blooming with weekly watering. Accordingly, this is a wonderful horticultural plant for landscaping to attract butterflies (particularly monarchs), whose numbers are declining and migratory routes changing due to lack of appropriate habitat. ), the monarch’s obligate larval host plants, is a key part of the international conservation strategy to return this iconic butterfly to sustainable status (Thogmartin et al., 2017; Monarch Joint Venture, 2020; USFWS, 2020). With over 140 different types of milkweed, there are milkweeds that grow well in almost every hardiness zone. Native bee populations are declining (Cameron et al., 2011; Koh et al., 2016) and millions of urban pollinator gardens are being planted to help their plight (Phillips, 2019). PeerJ promises to address all issues as quickly and professionally as possible. Bee samples were washed with water and dish soap, rinsed, then dried using a fan–powered dryer for 30–60 min and pinned. Because of sparse blooming of certain milkweed types (mainly A. tuberosa straight species and ‘Hello Yellow’) in one or two of the plots, it was not possible to collect a full sample from every garden. Sunny's wild food television series Hot on the Trail … Milkweed species are attractive to many insect species, including the large milkweed bug, common milkweed bug, red milkweed beetle, blue milkweed beetle, and bees. Places, has little tolerance for shade are means ± standard error ( )! 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